M. Ware, M. Monkman
This global survey reports on the attitudes and behaviour of 3040 academics in relation to peer review in journals.
Peer review is seen as an essential component of scholarly communication, the mechanism that facilitates the publication of
primary research in academic journals. Although sometimes thought of as an essential part of the journal, it is only since the
second world war that peer review has been institutionalised in the form we know it today. More recently it has come under
criticism on a number of fronts: it has been said that it is unreliable, unfair and fails to validate or authenticate; that it is
unstandardised and idiosyncratic; that its secrecy leads to irresponsibility on the part of reviewers; that it stifles innovation;
that it causes delay in publication; and so on. Perhaps the strongest criticism is that there is a lack of evidence that peer
review actually works, and a lack of evidence to indicate whether the documented failings are rare exceptions or the tip of an
Read more: Peer Review In Scholarly Journals: An...
Adam Smith (This report has been produced within a contract with the European Commission.)
The European Commission joined many other research funders in 2013 when it announced that one central requirement of future research grantees of Horizon 2020 would be that their research publications be made freely available to all. The Commission’s vision is open access for research outputs, as announced in its 2012 Communication. This states: “Information already paid for by the public purse should not be paid for again each time it is accessed or used, and […] should benefit European companies and citizens to the full.”
The Commission has no preferred model for how to achieve open access. It is searching for innovation wherever it may be found, from traditional commercial publishers, new organisations, distributed academic networks, and research libraries. The goal of achieving open access is a public one that sits above private interests. This sometimes means that businesses are obliged to evolve and adapt in light of the project to move towards open access.
The move to open access scholarly publishing has been accelerating for many years. It is driven by many factors, including: the emergence and expansion of the internet, which enables the fast and free dissemination of research outputs; the fact that many academic libraries are reporting the rising cost of subscription journals and the declining number of journals they can subscribe to; a moral case that publicly funded research should be freely available for all to see; and a case that more dissemination of knowledge will lead to more innovation and therefore economic growth.
Tags: peer review
Read more: Alternative Open Access Publishing Models:...