ALM emerged from an initiative of the PLoS to provide an alternative category for the classification of articles as citable or non-citable items. Launched in 2009, ALM now provides different impact and performance indicators, collecting data of different sources: views, saves, discussions, recommendations, and citations. PLoS collected data are accessible through APIs and widgets for free download. However, these measures and data are restricted to those articles published in PLoS.
Altmetric.com has been set up in 2011 as a commercial enterprise providing social media outreach for individual researchers and publishers. Its goal is to provide its customers information about the attention a single article receives. Altmetric.com has established a composite indicator that combines different sources of data (news, videos, policy documents, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Pinterest), resulting in a single indicator visualized by different colours which is often termed ‘altmetric donut’. The altmetric donut aims to inform about both ‘the quantity and quality of attention received by each item, applying some kind of control for gaming’.
Impact story launched in 2011 under the label ‘Total Impact’ is a non-profit organization emerged from a hackathon. Impact story now is an open source, web based tool that aims at providing individual scientists with instruments to ‘sell their science’. The goal of its founding fathers J. Priem and H. Piwowar – who also revolutionized the community with their terminologies and concepts (see here) – is to change the reputation structures of science by widening the scope of scientific products. Impact story provides its users 5 categories for social outreach: cited, saved, discussed, viewed, and recommended. Since 2014, Impactstory charges its users a fee of 60 $ per year.
Plum Analytics was launched in the same year (2011) as a ‘for profit start up’ and has been set up to provide new scholarly measures. Data and measures are collected at the group level of organizations such as departments, museums, and labs. PlumAnalytics uses data of PloS ALM and is hence regarded to be a ‘secondary aggregator’. Since 2014, PlumAnalytics is part of EBSCO Information Services, a large provider of scientific information in the net. Similar to Impact Story and ALM, PlumAnalytics covers four categories of data: Usage, Captures, Mentions, Social Media, and Citations.