The European Commission (2013) coordinated a special Eurobarometer (public opinion survey) on Responsible research and Innovation (RRI), Science and Technology. This survey gives a complementary perspective from the public’s side to the studies described above. Carried out in spring 2013, the survey involved face-to-face interviews of 27,563 respondents in the European Union and Croatia. It should be noted that interview questions were focused on science and technology, which - according to instructions in the survey - means “the natural sciences, like physics, chemistry, biology, and their application in technology and engineering, for instance computer technology, biotechnology and medical applications.” The survey results are therefore not representative for the social sciences, humanities, and the arts.
She Figures 2015 investigates the level of progress made towards gender equality in research & innovation (R&I) in Europe. It is the main source of pan-European, comparable statistics on the representation of women and men amongst PhD graduates, researchers and academic decision-makers. The data also sheds light on differences in the experiences of women and men working in research – such as relative pay, working conditions and success in obtaining research funds. It also presents for the first time the situation of women and men in scientific publication and inventorships, as well as the inclusion of the gender dimension in scientific articles.
Despite many good intentions and initiatives, gender inequality is still rife in science. Although there are more female than male undergraduate and graduate students in many countries1, there are relatively few female full professors, and gender inequalities in hiring2, earnings3, funding4, satisfaction5 and patenting6 persist.